Regneration Project mRNA


Messenger Ribonucleic acid Therapeutics (mRNA-T)  
RNA interference (RNAi) is being widely used in functional gene research and is an important tool for drug discovery. However, canonical double-stranded short interfering RNAs are unstable and induce undesirable adverse effects, and thus there is no currently RNAi-based therapy in the clinic. Scientists have developed a novel class of RNAi agents, and evaluated their effectiveness in vitro and in mouse models. The novel class of RNA were synthesized on solid phase as single-stranded RNAs that, following synthesis, self-anneal into a unique helical structure containing a central stem and two loops. They are resistant to degradation and suppress their target genes. Agents directed against TGF ameliorate outcomes and induce no off-target effects in three animal models of lung disease. The results of this study support the pathological relevance of TGF in lung diseases, and suggest the potential usefulness of these novel RNA agents for therapeutic application. 














Refernce

The original uploader was Sverdrup at English Wikipedia., Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons


 

CAXXÖN Labs Stand by Taiwan

CEO/ Reinforcement COVID/ APAC group 

5.15.2021

The situation of COVID-19 is getting critical in Taiwan APAC. Researchers, developers, and projects in CAXXON group are working to explore cures for some of the complex diseases. Our scientists are the cornerstone of what we do. No medicine or vaccine would be possible without their restless innovation, imagination, and dogged pursuit of cures. Now our partners in southeast Taiwan, and APAC regions are facing difficult situations, fighting for deadly COVID-19.

We are humble, we are agile, we are strong, we are devoted, we stand by all our partners in Taiwan.












Regeneration Project aPhrodite


Wounded Skin Regeneration (WSR)  
A wound is a break or opening in the skin. Your skin protects your body from germs. When the skin is broken, even during surgery, germs can enter and cause infection. Wounds often occur because of an accident or injury. 
Wounds heal in stages. The smaller the wound, the quicker it will heal. The larger or deeper the wound, the longer it takes to heal. When you get a cut, scrape, or puncture, the wound will bleed. Not all wounds bleed. For example, burns, some puncture wounds, and pressure sores do not bleed. Once the scab forms, your body's immune system starts to protect the wound from infection.
Tissue growth and rebuilding occur next. 
-Over the next 3 weeks or so, the body repairs broken blood vessels and new tissue grows. 
-Red blood cells help create collagen, which are tough, white fibers that form the foundation for new tissue. 
-The wound starts to fill in with new tissue, called granulation tissue. 
-New skin begins to form over this tissue. 
-As the wound heals, the edges pull inward and the wound gets smaller. 
 

Leong M, Murphy KD, Phillips LG. Wound healing. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: 

The Biological Basis of Modern Surgical Practice. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 6.





Cancer Markers Technology

A tumor marker is a substance that can be produced by human body in response to cancer, or can be produced by the cancer itself. Tumor makers are generally used to evaluate the patient's response to treatments(drugs) or to monitor recurrence. Tumor makers can help a doctor to determine prognosis or proper treatments.








Regeneration Project aRchimedes


Bone Gla-protein Regenration (BGR)  

Osteocalcin (Or bone gla-protein)is secreted solely by osteoblasts and thought to play a role in the body's metabolic regulation. In its carboxylated form it binds calcium directly and thus concentrates in bone.


In its uncarboxylated form, osteocalcin acts as a hormone in the body, signalling in the pancreas, fat, muscle, testes, and brain.


In the pancreas, osteocalcin acts on beta cells, causing beta cells in the pancreas to release more insulin.

In fat cells, osteocalcin triggers the release of the hormone adiponectin, which increases sensitivity to insulin.

In muscle, osteocalcin acts on myocytes to promote energy availability and utilization and in this manner favors exercise capacity.

In the testes, osteocalcin acts on Leydig cells, stimulating testosterone biosynthesis and therefore affects male fertility.

In the brain, osteocalcin plays an important role in development and functioning.

An acute stress response, colloquially known as the fight-or-flight response, stimulates osteocalcin release from bone within minutes in mice, rats, and humans. Injections of high levels of osteocalcin alone can trigger an ASR in the presence of adrenal insufficiency.


Normal Range:

The levels of osteocalcin in your serum (the liquid part of the blood) are usually reported in ng/mL (nanograms per milliliter).

The normal range is around 8 – 32 ng/mL. Levels can vary slightly between labs, due to differences in equipment, chemicals, and methods used.

Some labs give a different range for men, pre- and post-menopausal women.


Low Osteocalcin

Causes:

Low osteocalcin levels usually indicate lower bone turnover.

Causes shown below are commonly associated with low osteocalcin levels. Work with your doctor or another health care professional to get an accurate diagnosis. Your doctor will interpret your value, taking into account your medical history, symptoms, and other test results.


 

  2021.04    -Reference





Regeneration Project aThena

CAXXÖN LABS have created several patented technology boosting up the leap of bio-regeneration.

Aging Skin Regeneration (AGR) 

The characteristic features of aging skin include wrinkles, dryness of the skin, reduced skin thickness, loss of elasticity, dermal and epidermal atrophy, reduced rate of epidermal cell proliferation and cellular senescence. External factors that mainly contribute to skin aging include sunlight, UV radiation, chemicals, pollutants, and smoking. Besides external stimuli, endogenous processes that trigger aging process include excessive free radical production, nuclear/mitochondrial gene mutation, cellular senescence, shortening of telomere, reduced cell proliferation, and impaired immune functioning. In recent years, many scientific studies have revealed that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are also among the crucial contributory factors of skin aging.



Accumulation of AGEs in the skin has been observed both in diabetes and during chronological aging. Proteins with slow turnover rate, such as collagen I and IV, as well as long-lived proteins, such as fibronectin, are primary targets of glycation reaction in the skin. Moreover, excessive deposition of AGEs in sun-exposed skin areas suggests that solar radiation, especially UV radiation, may play an important role in the formation of AGEs. Apart from sunlight, other external factors that are responsible for increased formation and deposition of AGEs in the skin include smoking and diet. The amount of AGEs in the food mainly depends on the method of preparation. For example, fried foods contain higher amount of AGEs as compared to boiled foods. About 10-30% of ingested AGEs are absorbed in the body and may participate in skin aging. Mechanistically, AGEs can react with proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids and alter their normal physiological functioning. Upon binding to their receptors, AGEs can also trigger a cascade of signaling pathways, leading to reduced cell proliferation, increase cellular senescence and apoptosis, decreased extracellular matrix synthesis, increased formation of free radicals and pro-inflammatory mediators, etc. All these processes can potentially contribute to skin aging.


Strategies to Control AGEs Since autofluorescence is an intrinsic property of AGEs, measurement of skin fluorescence is an effective method of detecting AGE deposition in the skin. Studies have found that skin fluorescence positively correlates with many age-related disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases, renal disorder, macular degeneration, and overall mortality. Given the immense involvement of AGEs in age-related disorders, including skin aging, effective strategies/interventions are needed to prevent, or at least control, their accumulation in the body. In this regard, most efficient strategies include removal of already formed AGEs from the body by degrading glycated proteins; inhibiting the formation of AGEs; and antagonizing AGE-mediated signaling cascade.



Harvard Dutta, Sanchari Sinha. 2018. Glycation and Skin Aging. News-Medical, viewed 03 January 2021, https://www.news-medical.net/health/Glycation-and-Skin-Aging.aspx.